Tag: Wikipedia

Penal transportation – Wikipedia

Relocation of convicted criminals to a distant place

Women in England mourning their lovers who are soon to be transported to Botany Bay, 1792

Penal transportation or transportation was the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentences were served, they generally did not have the resources to return home.

Origin and implementation[edit]

Banishment or forced exile from a polity or society has been used as a punishment since at least Ancient Roman times. The practice reached its height in the British Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries.[1]

Transportation removed the offender from society, mostly permanently, but was seen as more merciful than capital punishment. This method was used for criminals, debtors, military prisoners,

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Alternator (automotive) – Wikipedia

Alternator (silver) mounted on a V8 engine

Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running.

Until the 1960s, automobiles used DC dynamo generators with commutators. With the availability of affordable silicon diode rectifiers, alternators were used instead. This was encouraged by the increasing electrical power required for cars in this period, with increasing loads from larger headlamps, electric wipers, heated rear windows and other accessories.

History[edit]

The modern type of vehicle alternators were first used by the military from WWII, to power radio equipment on specialist vehicles.[i] Post-war, other vehicles with high electrical demands, such as ambulances and radio taxis, could also be fitted with optional alternators.[1]

Alternators were first introduced as standard equipment on a production car by the Chrysler Corporation on the Valiant in 1960, several years ahead of Ford

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Automotive design – Wikipedia

Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, coaches, and vans.

The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, however, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation[1] is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design.
Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design.

Design elements[edit]

The 2003 Bertone Birusa concept car on display at an International Car
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Automotive battery – Wikipedia

rechargeable battery for starting a car engine

A typical 12 V, 40 Ah lead-acid car battery

An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle. Its main purpose is to feed the starter, which starts the engine. Once the engine is running, power for the car’s electrical systems is still supplied by the battery with the alternator charging as demands increase or decrease .

Battery in modern cars[edit]

Gasoline and Diesel engine[edit]

Typically, starting uses less than three percent of the battery capacity. For this reason, automotive batteries are designed to deliver maximum current for a short period of time. They are sometimes referred to as “SLI batteries” for this reason, for Starting, Lighting, and Ignition. SLI

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Vehicle (song) – Wikipedia

1970 song by The Ides of March

Vehicle” is a song recorded by American rock band The Ides of March for their debut studio album of the same name (1970). The song was released as the lead single from the album in March 1970 through Warner Bros. Records. It was written by vocalist and frontman Jim Peterik about a girl that often used him for his mode of transportation, leading Peterik to surmise that he was little more than her “vehicle”. The song has a distinctive horn section riff, often mistaken for the band Blood, Sweat and Tears, who were also popular in that era.

“Vehicle” was a commercial success, and was purported to be the fastest-selling single in the history of Warner Bros. at that time. It peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US, while reaching the top five in Canada and

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Bicycle saddle – Wikipedia

One of 5 contact points on an upright bicycle

Various types of bicycle saddles

A bicycle saddle, often called a seat,[1] is one of five contact points on an upright bicycle, the others being the two pedals and the two handles on the handlebars. (A bicycle seat in the specific sense also supports the back.) At any point in time there can be one, two, three, four or five contact points between rider and bike sharing support of rider body weight and applying rotation torque to the pedals.
The bicycle saddle has been known as such since the bicycle evolved from the draisine, a forerunner of the bicycle.[2][3] It performs a similar role as a horse’s saddle, not bearing all the weight of the rider as the other contact points also take some of the load.

A bicycle saddle is commonly attached to the seatpost and

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Automotive engineering – Wikipedia

Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. It also includes modification of vehicles. Manufacturing domain deals with the creation and assembling the whole parts of automobiles is also included in it. The automotive engineering field is research -intensive and involves direct application of mathematical models and formulas. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and test vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field.

Disciplines[edit]

Automobile engineering[edit]

Automobile engineering is a branch study of engineering which teaches manufacturing, designing, mechanical mechanisms as well operations of automobiles.
It is an

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Fisker Automotive – Wikipedia

Fisker Automotive was an American company known for producing the Fisker Karma, which was one of the world’s first production luxury plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. It debuted at the 2008 North American International Auto Show, and first deliveries were in 2011. Production of the Fisker Karma was suspended in November 2012 due to bankruptcy of its battery supplier A123 Systems,[9] with about 2,450 Karmas built since 2011 and over 2000 cars sold worldwide.[10] In February 2014, Fisker Automotive’s Karma vehicle design, tooling and a manufacturing facility in Delaware were purchased by Chinese auto parts conglomerate Wanxiang Group. Henrik Fisker, the founder of Fisker Automotive, retained the Fisker trademarks and the Fisker brand and launched a separate company, Fisker Inc., in 2016. Wanxiang later renamed its new company Karma Automotive.[11]

History[edit]

2007–2014[edit]

Henrik Fisker co-founded Fisker Automotive in 2007 with Fisker Coachbuild

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Vehicle insurance – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vehicle insurance (also called auto insurance or car insurance) is a kind of insurance that protects people if they have a car accident. Somebody with vehicle insurance would not have to pay the entire cost of damage a car accident causes. In many places, it is against the law to drive without vehicle insurance.

The bare minimum everyday driver should require to purchase a liability coverage. It varies from state to state and it is important to have the minimum amount as required by law. You can receive a ticket, have your driver license revoked, or even be arrested.

Liability is there to protect the other drivers on the road from the damages you cause.

Insurance prices vary a lot by the company. The car you drive can affect your auto insurance rates. If you get in a accident the repairs on the car may be different from others.

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Motor vehicle – Wikipedia

The United States has the world’s highest rate of vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 832 vehicles in operation per 1000 people in 2016.[1]
Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou’s main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumbering regular bicyles

A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails (such as trains or trams or 4-wheelers) and is used for the transportation of people or cargo.

The vehicle propulsion is provided by an engine or motor, usually an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, or some combination of the two, such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. For legal purpose, motor vehicles are often identified within a number of vehicle classes including cars, buses, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, light

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